#PowerDesigner adds support for Amazon #Redshift

Late last year, SAP issued Service Pack 5 for PowerDesigner 16.6. From the list of new features, it’s obvious that SAP are putting a lot of focus on the web-editing capabilities of the tool. In this service pack, there are changes that affect process modellers, enterprise architects, requirements modellers, and data architects. I shan’t list them all here – see the note below for details of how to access them yourself.

I’m going to focus on what matters to data architects – the new support for Amazon Redshift. SAP have done the usual excellent job of enhancing the underlying database support in the Physical Data Model (PDM) in order to handle this DBMS. For example, they’ve added a new type of object, “External Schema”, and extended the properties available for Tables, Columns, Views, and Users. The latter includes recognising Schemas as a Stereotype of User.

For example, here’s the new ‘general’ tab for a column – I’ve highlighted some of the new properties for you.

Redshift column

To find out more about these new features, follow these two simple steps:

·        Search for PowerDesigner stuff on SAP.com – https://help.sap.com/viewer/p/SAP_POWERDESIGNER

·        click on the “New Features Summary” link

 

click here for more

Advertisements

“Making It Real” – Establishing the Interdependence of Data Governance and Your Data Models #edw2018

“Data governance is at the heart of all data management activities and is heavily reliant on effective data modelling. This is a two-way interdependency. Neither can work effectively without the other.”

In April 2018, Chris Bradley (@inforacer) and I will be running a half-day seminar on this topic at Enterprise Data World in San Diego. If you want to find out more, click on this link – https://edw2018.dataversity.net/sessionPop.cfm?confid=121&proposalid=9515 – and we’ll see you there.

In the workshop, we describe real-world data governance processes, based upon years of experience with major clients, and the accompanying data modelling practices and additional information required to manage change effectively, including data lineage. Then it will be time for you to put those processes to the test, pushing proposed changes through the data governance pipeline, in which you are a key participant. Will our apparently perfect processes and data modelling practices hold up?

 

Work smarter with #PowerDesigner – Choosing your Conversion Table

In yesterday’s blog post, I described how to convert CamelCase object Codes into ‘Proper Case’ object Names, using a combination of GTL and VBScript in a model extension. This took advantage of the built-in conversion routines, which enable us to convert abbreviations into plain language, such as replacing “acct” with “account”.

I didn’t show you how to tell PowerDesigner where to look for those abbreviations, so that’s what I’m going to do now. The secret lies with the Naming Conventions in the Model Options. There are three ways to access the Model Options:

  • near the bottom of the Tools menu
  • right-click the model in the Browser
  • right-click a blank area of a diagram

Click on the “Naming Conventions” section, then on the “Code to name” sub-tab, as shown below.  You need to do two things:

  1. Select “Enable conversions”
  2. Choose from the drop-down list of conversion tables – in the example below, I’ve chosen one of my CSV files

PDM model options - conversion table

The drop-down list of conversion tables will include entries from the following sources:

  • if you have a repository, one entry for ‘glossary terms’ (these are the Terms in the PowerDesigner Glossary)
  • CSV files that have been checked into the ‘Library’ folder in the repository
  • CSV files in the target folder(s). Click on the folder icon to the right of the drop-down to change the target folders – the default folder is “C:\Program Files\SAP\PowerDesigner 16\Resource Files\Conversion Tables”, which contains a single sample, called “stdnames.csv”, so you’ll probably want to add at least one more folder to the list.

You can edit your conversion table directly, without using Excel – just click on the ‘Edit Selected Conversion Table’ button.

edit selected conversion table

Each time you run the menu options I showed you yesterday, it will use the current conversion table. If, for example, you haven’t defined ‘BBC’ as an abbreviation, the code ‘BBCNews’ will be converted to ‘BBC News’. If you decide that ‘BBC’ should be converted to “British Broadcasting Corporation”, just add the following entry to your conversion table, and run the menu options again.

British Broadcasting Corporation BBC

Lastly, it’s worth pointing out that the Conversion table that you select on the Naming Conventions tab is used for every type of object, unless you select a different Conversion table in one of the object-specific sections. In this example, I’ve chosen a different Conversion table for Columns:

naming for columns

So, you could use different conversion tables for different types of object, if you want to.

Work smarter with #PowerDesigner – Converting Camel Case Codes to Mixed Case Names

Every object in PowerDesigner actually has two labels, which we refer to as the Name and the Code. The Name is the ‘business’ or ‘human’ name for an object, and the Code is a technical name for the object. The Naming Conventions allow you to automatically convert the ‘business’ names into the ‘technical’ codes, like this set of LDM attributes:

att names and codesAs well as changing the case, and replacing spaces with underscores, we can replace words and phrases with their abbreviations, using a CSV file or the PowerDesigner glossary as the source. Here are the same attributes, after changing the standard for codes to UpperCamelCase, and applying abbreviations from a CSV file.

att names and codes 2

That’s fine if you’re forward-engineering, creating technical artefacts from your models, but what if you’re reverse-engineering, and those technical names (the PowerDesigner codes) are your starting point?

When you reverse-engineer a database in PowerDesigner, the only names available are the technical names, so the PowerDesigner Names and Codes are the same. Synchronisation is automatically turned off, so you can manually edit names without accidentally changing the codes (the technical names). For example, here’s part of the model created by reverse-engineering the Demo database that gets installed with SAP SQL Anywhere 17:

 

SQL Any 17 Demo DB

The table and column names are all in UpperCamelCase. If I want to create a Logical data Model, I will need to convert them into a more human-friendly format. Out of the box, I can easily convert some standards – for example, it’s trivial to convert “SALES_REPRESENTATIVE” to “Sales Representative”. However, converting Camel Case names is not trivial. After reading a Sandhill blog entry about how to do this in ERwin yesterday, I decided to finally figure out how to do it in PowerDesigner – I’ve thought about it on and off, but never took the time to work it out. I didn’t want to do it outside PowerDesigner, as I wanted to make use of PowerDesigner’s standard naming conventions as much as possible, especially the ability to replace abbreviations with the real thing. For example, here’s part of a CSV file I was using today, which I’ll use in the next example:

abbrevsI also wanted to come up with a mechanism that was as easy to use as possible – the result is a simple model extension, that adds menu options to the model, to tables, and to columns, so you can reset the names of:

  • all tables and columns in the models
  • a selected table
  • all the columns in a selected table
  • a selected column

For example, I have a column called “BBCOrderLn”, and want to set the Name to “BBC Order Line” – “Ln” is the abbreviation for “Line” in my CSV file. With my model extension, I just right-click the column on the diagram or in the browser, and select the option “set Proper Name”,

column Proper

and the result is

column Proper after

Here’s a made-up example for a whole table:

Proper Table

How does it work? It’s based on a single model extension that contains a number of GTL templates – GTL is PowerDesigner’s Generation Template Language, which is great at turning metadata into text. One of the templates contains embedded VBScript, which is the part that does the real work. I shan’t bore you with the whole model extension here, I’ll just show you the part that converts a single column.

It includes a menu, which allows you to run the Method called “set Proper Name”, which contains a little bit of VBScriptxem proper column.

Sub %Method%(obj)
Dim candidate
candidate = obj.evaluatetemplatefor("newName","PDM-ProperCase")
 if not candidate = obj.Name then
   reportChange "Column", obj.Table.Name & "." & obj.name, obj.Table.Name & "." & candidate
   obj.Name = candidate ' need to change it
 end if
End Sub

The key part here is “evaluatetemplatefor“, which runs a shared GTL template called “newName”. Because it’s shared, I only have to define it once, and then I can use it wherever I like.proper shared templates This is a very simple template, containing a single line of GTL, which calls the standard template (.convert_code) that PowerDesigner uses to convert codes into names, changing the case and reversing abbreviations. Instead of supplying the object code to be converted, it passes the result of the other template, “ProperCase”

.convert_code(%ProperCase%," ")

“ProperCase” does the real work here, with some embedded VBscript. If you find any problems with this code, please let me know.

.vbscript(%1%)
Dim obj : set obj = activeselection.item(0)
Dim myString : myString = obj.Code
Dim ProperCase

' converts a string into Proper Case, one character at a time
' the first character is always upper case
' if an existing character is already upper case, it is not converted
' if an existing character is a space, it is output as is
' ignore underscores - convert_code will deal with them
' acronyms are left intact
' multi-word conversions only made if they're separated by a space
Dim i
Dim prevSpaceInd ' was previous character a space?
Dim prevUpperInd ' was previous character upper case?
Dim nextChar ' the next character in the string 
Dim myStringLength ' the length of myString
myStringLength = len(myString)

Select Case myStringLength
 ' If there are 0 or 1 characters, just return the string.
 Case 0
   ProperCase = myString
 Case 1
   ProperCase = Ucase(myString)
 Case else 
   ' Start with the first character - this will always be upper case
   ProperCase = Ucase(Left(myString,1))
   prevUpperInd = true ' remember this for the next character

  ' Add the remaining characters
   Dim myChar
   For i = 2 To len(myString)
      myChar = Mid(myString,i,1)

     If myChar = " " then
         prevSpaceInd = True ' remember this for the next character
         myChar = " "
     ElseIf myChar = "_" then ' ignore
         myChar = myChar
         prevSpaceInd = True ' force script to act as if it was a space
     ElseIf myChar = Ucase(myChar) then
         ' the current character is upper case
         If prevSpaceInd then ' previous character was a space
            myChar = myChar
            prevSpaceInd = False
         ElseIf prevUpperInd then ' previous character was also Upper Case
            	nextChar = Mid(myString,i+1,1)
         	If i = myStringLength then ' this is the last character in the string
            		myChar = myChar ' don't insert a space
         	ElseIf nextChar = Lcase(nextChar) then ' next char is lower case
            		' If the next character is not upper case, 
            		' assume the current letter is beginning of new word
            			myChar = " " & myChar ' make this 1st letter of new word
         		Else
            			myChar = myChar ' continue an acronym
         		End If
      		Else
        	 	myChar = " " & myChar
      		End If
      		prevUpperInd = true ' remember this for the next character
	Else ' must be lower case or perhaps a number, leave it alone
		prevUpperInd = False
		myChar = myChar
	End If
       	ProperCase = ProperCase & myChar
    Next ' i
End Select
ScriptResult = ProperCase
.endvbscript

Finally, you need to add a simple Global Script, which reports actions to the Output window:

reportChange

Thanks to everybody who visited my blog in 2017 – you came from 108 different countries #PowerDesigner #datamodeling #datamodelling

Blog visitors 2017

Work smarter with #PowerDesigner – use a Dependency Matrix to assign Domains to Attributes

PowerDesigner’s dependency matrices are really powerful, and I don’t ever remember seeing anything similar in a data modelling tool. They allow me to visualise and even edit links between objects.

In a Conceptual, Logical, or Physical Data Model, or in a UML Object Model, Domains are a useful object, allowing you to manage the ways in which your data is represented. Take this simple data model, for instance.

1. initial model

I’ve reached the point where I need to assign a Domain to each attribute. I can edit each attribute one at a time, and select a Domain from the drop-down list, like this:

3, Assigning a Domain

In a large model, that could take some time. There are a couple of ways we could speed up the process:

  • edit multiple attributes at once using a list of attributes
  • use a Dependency Matrix

In this blog post, I’ll cover the second option. A Dependency Matrix is a model object, so  like any other model object there are several ways of creating one. The simplest way is to right-click the model name in the Browser, then select “New”, and “Dependency Matrix”. The first thing we have to do is choose the types of objects to display in the rows and columns.

4. Create matrix

I want to use this matrix for editing attributes, so I have to make sure that the rows contain Entity Attributes, and the columns contain Domains. The matrix cell will show the “Domain” property of the Entity Attribute. When I click on <OK>, the matrix is created, and appears in the Browser

4a. browser

Now I can double-click the matrix to show the content

5. Matrix Content - initial

Three attributes already have the domain assigned – two of those are foreign keys for Building.Building Name, so I only had to set one of them, PowerDesigner set the other two automatically. Now, if I click inside one of the cells, such as the intersection of Elephant.Elephant Name and Animal Name, I can assign the domain to the attribute with one press of the keyboard – I use the Spacebar.

6. instructions

Now all I have to do is use the cursor keys to move around the matrix, and press the Spacebar every time I want to assign a Domain. It doesn’t take long to finish them all. Here’s the final matrix:

7. Matrix Content - final

Here’s the model:

8. final

The toolbar allows me to use the matrix in flexible ways, such as choosing which attributes or domains to include, hiding ’empty’ or populated rows, and exporting to Excel. Press <F1> to find out more.

9. Toolbar